This write-up on the National symbols of India contains brief information on various national symbols of India. It also traces the history and evolution of various Indian National symbols. We have covered Indian National anthem, national bird, national flag, national flower, national, tree, national calendar, national song, national emblem, national fruit and the national game of India.
National Anthem India
The national anthem of India, Jana-gana-mana, was composed by the great poet Rabindranath Tagore and was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on January 24th 1950. Jana-gana-mana was first sung on 27th December, 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. The songs, Jana-gana-mana, consists of five stanzas. The first stanza constitutes the full version of the National Anthem.
Tiger (Panthera Tigris, Linnaeus) is the national animal of India. Tiger is also called the lord of Jungles. As the national animal of India, tiger symbolizes India's wildlife wealth. The rare combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger great respect and high esteem.
Peacock (Pavo cristatus), which is a symbol of grace, joy, beauty and love is the national bird of India. Peacock occupies a respectable position in Indian culture and is protected not only by religious sentiments but also by parliamentary statute.
The national calendar of India is based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days. The national calendar of India was adopted on March 22nd 1957. Dates of the Indian national calendar have a permanent correspondence with the Gregorian calendar dates- 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
National Emblem India
The National Emblem of India has been taken from the Sarnath Lion capital erected by Ashoka. The national emblem of India was adapted by the Government of India on 26th January1950. In the National emblem only three lions are visible and the fourth one is hidden from the view.
National Flag of India
The national flag of India is tricolor. It has deep saffron color strip at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportions. The width and length ratio of the National flag is two is to three. In the centre of the white strip, there is a wheel in navy blue color to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital.
Lotus is the National flower of India. The Lotus symbolizes spirituality, fruitfulness, wealth, knowledge and illumination. The most important thing about lotus is that even after growing in murky water it is untouched by its impurity. On the other hand the lotus symbolizes purity of heart and mind.
Mango (Mangifera Indica) is the National fruit of India. Mango is one of the most widely grown fruits of the tropical countries. In India, mango is cultivated almost in all parts, with the exception of hilly areas. Mango is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India, we have hundreds of varieties of mangoes. They are of different sizes, shapes and colors.
Hockey is the National Game of India. Hockey has been played in India for time immemorial. There was a golden period of Indian hockey when hockey stalwarts of India ruled the game. On the international scenario there were no competitors to match the magical hands of Indian hockey players.
National Song India
The National song of India is Vande Mataram. It was composed by the famous poet, Bankim Chandra Chaterjee in the year 1875. Rabindranath sang the National song (Vande Mataram) by setting a magnificent tune and Shri Aurobindo interpreted the deep meaning of the song.
Banyan is the National tree of India. The mighty banyan tree commands a great presence in the rural setting of India. The very size of the banyan tree makes it a habitat for a large number of creatures. For centuries the banyan tree has been a central point for the village communities of India.