Odissi is one of the famous classical Indian dances from Orissa state. The history of Odissi dance is almost two thousand years old. Odissi is a highly inspired, passionate, ecstatic and sensuous form of dance. Like most of the South Indian classical dances of India Odissi too had its origin in the Devadasi tradition. The state of Orissa has a great cultural history. The rulers of this region built magnificent temples, which became the center of art and culture. It was around these temples that Odissi, one of India's scintillating dance-forms was born, nurtured and nourished.
In its present form Odissi is a well established and codified classical
dance form of India. Odissi is considered a dance of love, joy and
intense passion, pure, divine and human. Over a period of time three
schools of Odissi dance developed, they are- Mahari, Nartaki, and
Gotipau. The Mahari system traces its roots in the Devadasi tradition.
The dance form of Odissi that developed in royal courts is called the
Nartaki tradition. In the Gotipau tradition of Odissi dance young boys
dress up in female attires and enact female roles.
Before the 17th century Odissi dance was held in great esteem due to
patronage and support of local rulers and nobles. During this period
even the royalty was expected to be accomplished dancers. However, the
scenario changed after the 17th century. The dancing girls were thought
of as prostitutes and from here the social position of dancers began to
decline. During the colonial period too the position of Odissi dance
suffered due to anti-nautch attitude of the British.
With India gaining independence there began great efforts to revive the
classical Indian dances. The government came to realize the role of
cultural heritage in creating a national identity. A number of people
and experts took initiatives for the reconstruction and popularization
of Odissi dance. Some of the notable are Guru Deba Prasad Das, Guru
Mayadhar Raut, Guru Pankaj Charan Das, Guru Mahadev Rout, Guru Raghu
Dutta and Guru Kelu Charan Mahapatra.
One of the most distinguishing features of Odissi dance is the
Tribhangi. The notion of Tribhang divides the body into three parts,
head, bust and torso. The postures dealing with these three elements are
called Tribhangi. This concept has created the very characteristic poses
which are more twisted than found in other classical Indian dances.
Mudra is also an important component of Odissi dance. The term Mudra
means "stamp" and is a hand position which suggests things.
Odissi themes are almost religious in nature and mostly revolve around